hydrogen injection(warning very long post)

Discussion in 'Performance Mods' started by psuggmog, Jan 13, 2007.

  1. psuggmog

    psuggmog Guest

    Hey all you energy freaks ~ here is a detailed compilation I just received from a friend, of the studies that have been done on augmenting gasoline & diesel oil with
    hydrogen and oxygen ("Brown's gas") from electrolysis to great benefit. I
    begin with the conclusion because it is also a good "executive summary".

    HYDROGEN AS A COMBUSTION STIMULANT
    Hydrogen burns more rapidly than hydrocarbon fuels because it is smaller and
    enters combustion reactions at higher velocity, has lower activation energy,
    and incurs more molecular collisions than heavier molecules. These
    characteristics make it possible to use mixtures of hydrogen with
    conventional hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel and propane to
    reduce emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. Transition from fossil fuels to
    renewable hydrogen by use of mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities with
    conventional fuels offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions. Using
    hydrogen as a combustion stimulant makes it possible for other fuels to meet
    future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an
    increasing number of additional States.
    Mixing hydrogen with hydrocarbon fuels provides combustion stimulation by
    increasing the rate of molecular-cracking processes in which large
    hydrocarbons are broken into smaller fragments. Expediting production of
    smaller molecular fragments is beneficial in increasing the
    surface-to-volume ratio and consequent exposure to oxygen for completion of
    the combustion process. Relatively small amount of hydrogen can dramatically
    increase horsepower and reduce emissions of atmospheric pollutants.
    I add here my own observations, which I have only heard mentioned once (from
    a highly respected expert on combustion) in all of my readings on
    combustion. Air is composed almost entirely of N2 and O2 molecules, which
    are balanced molecules transparent to radiation and transfer heat through
    the relatively slow process of conduction - molecular bombardment. CO2 and
    H2O, on the other hand, are imbalanced molecules that readily absorb
    radiation instantly. Adding dissociated H2O to the combustion mix not only
    speeds up combustion, but dramatically and instantaneously spreads the heat
    of combustion to all of the molecules of gas in the cylinder, including the
    Nitrogen which is the 79% of the air that doesn't burn or support
    combustion. This results in near instantaneous and maximum expansion of the
    gasses in the cylinder, also evening out the their temperature to eliminate
    hot spots.
    Hydrogen Injection
    The technology of using hydrogen as a combustion enhancement in internal
    combustion engines has been researched and proven for many years. The
    benefits are factual and well documented. Our own utilization of this
    technology. i.e. the hydrogen injection system, has also been tested and
    proven both by institutions and in hundreds of practical applications in
    road vehicles.
    Here is a synopsis of a sampling of the research that has been done:
    In 1974 John Houseman and D.J/Cerini of the Jet Propulsion Lab, California
    Institute of Technology produced a report for the Society of Automotive
    Engineers entitled "On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen
    Injection Internal Combustion Engine".
    In 1974 F.W. Hoehn and M.W. Dowy of the Jet Propulsion Lab, prepared a
    report for the 9th Inter society Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,
    entitled "Feasibility Demonstration of a Road Vehicle Fueled with Hydrogen
    Enriched Gasoline."
    In the early eighties George Vosper P. Eng., ex-professor of Dynamics and
    Canadian inventor, designed and patented a device to transform internal
    combustion engines to run on hydrogen. He later affirms: "A small amount of
    hydrogen added to the air intake of a gasoline engine would enhance the
    flame velocity and thus permit the engine to operate with leaner air to
    gasoline mixture than otherwise possible. The result, far less pollution
    with more power and better mileage." In 1995, Wagner, Jamal and Wyszynski,
    at the Birmingham, of University Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing>,
    demonstrated the advantages of "Fractional addition of hydrogen to internal
    combustion engines by exhaust gas fuel reforming." The process yielded
    benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and
    hydrocarbon emissions.

    Roy MacAlister, PE of the American Hydrogen Association states the "Use of
    mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities and conventional fuels offers
    significant reductions in exhaust emissions" and that "Using hydrogen as a
    combustion stimulant it is possible for other fuels to meet future
    requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an increasing
    number of additional states. Relatively small amounts of hydrogen can
    dramatically increase horsepower and reduce exhaust emissions."
    At the HYPOTHESIS Conference, University of Cassino, Italy, June 26-29,
    1995, a group of scientists from the University of Birmingham, UK, presented
    a study about hydrogen as a fraction of the fuel. In the abstract of that
    study it stated: "Hydrogen, when used as a fractional additive at extreme
    lean engine operation, yields benefits in improved combustion stability and
    reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions."

    In the Spring of 1997, at an international conference held by the University
    of Calgary, a team of scientists representing the Department of Energy
    Engineering, Zhejiang University, China, presented a mathematical model for
    the process of formation and restraint of toxic emissions in
    hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines. Using the theory of chemical
    dynamics of combustion, the group elaborated an explanation of the mechanism
    of forming toxic emissions in spark ignition engines. The results of their
    experimental investigation conclude that because of the characteristics of
    hydrogen, the mixture can rapidly burn in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled
    engines, thus toxic emissions are restrained. These studies and other
    research on hydrogen as a fuel supplement generated big efforts in trying to
    develop practical systems to enhance internal combustion engine performance.
    A few of them materialized in patented devices that didn't't reach the level
    of performance, safety or feasibility that would allow them to reach
    marketing stages.
    California Environmental Engineering (CEE) has tested this technology and
    found reduction on all exhaust emissions. They subsequently stated: "CEE
    feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable
    source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines."

    The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab tested this technology and proved
    that: "Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions
    was realized." Again, zero emissions were observed on CO. Northern Alberta
    Institute of Technology. Vehicle subjected to dynamometer loading in
    controlled conditions showed drastic reduction of emissions and improved
    horsepower.
    Corrections Canada tested several systems and concluded, "The hydrogen
    system is a valuable tool in helping Corrections Canada meet the overall
    Green Plan by: reducing vehicle emissions down to an acceptable level and
    meeting the stringent emissions standard set out by California and British
    Columbia; reducing the amount of fuel consumed by increased mileage."
    Additionally, their analysis pointed out that this solution is the most cost
    effective. For their research they granted the C.S.C. Environmental Award.
    We also conducted extensive testing in order to prove reliability and
    determine safety and performance of the components and the entire system. As
    a result of these tests, we achieved important breakthroughs as far as the
    designs of the components were concerned. We have since increased the
    hydrogen/oxygen production significantly. This has resulted in increased
    effectiveness on engine performance.
    The results of these tests were able to confirm the claims made about this
    technology: the emissions will be reduced, the horsepower will increase and
    the fuel consumption will be reduced.
    From researching the Internet we also found the following information
    To best describe how Hydrogen Enhanced Combustion works, we are providing
    this excerpt from a University Technical Report, written by Mr. George
    Vosper, P.Eng.;
    ....a Hydrogen Generating System (HGS) for trucks or cars has been on the
    market for some time. Mounted on a vehicle, it feeds small amounts of
    hydrogen and oxygen into the engine's air intake. Its makers claim savings
    in fuel, reduced noxious and greenhouse gases and increased power. The auto
    industry is not devoid of hoaxes and as engineers are sceptics by training,
    it is no surprise that a few of them say the idea won't work. Such opinions,
    from engineers can't be dismissed without explaining why I think these
    Hydrogen Generating Systems do work and are not just another hoax. The 2nd
    law of thermodynamics is a likely source of those doubts. Meaning ...the
    law -would lead you to believe that it will certainly take more power to
    produce this hydrogen than can be regained by burning it in the engine. i.e.
    the resulting energy balance should be negative. If the aim is to create
    hydrogen by electrolysis to be burned as a fuel, the concept is ridiculous.
    On the other hand, if hydrogen, shortens the burn time of the main fuel-air
    mix, putting more pressure on the piston through a longer effective power
    stroke, and in doing so takes more work out, then this system does make
    sense.
    Does it work? Independent studies, at different universities, using various
    fuels, have shown that flame speeds increase when small amounts of hydrogen
    are added to air-fuel mixes. A study by the California Institute of
    Technology, at its Jet Propulsion Lab Pasadena, in 1974 concluded:
    The J.P.L. concept has unquestionably demonstrated that the addition of
    small quantities of gaseous hydrogen to the primary gasoline significantly
    reduces CO and NOx exhaust emissions while improving engine thermal
    efficiency
    A recent study at the University of Calgary by G.A. Karim on the effect of
    adding hydrogen to a methane-fuelled engine says
    ... The addition of some hydrogen to the methane, speeds up the rates of
    initiation and subsequent propagation of flames over the whole combustible
    mixture range, including for very fast flowing mixtures. This enhancement of
    flame initiation and subsequent flame propagation, reduces the Ignition
    delay and combustion period in both spark ignition and compression ignition
    engines which should lead to noticeable improvements in the combustion
    process and performance
    What happens inside the combustion chamber is still only a guess. In an
    earlier explanation I suggested that the extremely rapid flame speed of the
    added hydrogen oxygen interspersed through the main fuel air mix, gives the
    whole mix a much faster flame rate. Dr. Brant Peppley, Hydrogen Systems
    Group, Royal Military College, Kingston, has convinced me that insufficient
    hydrogen is produced to have much effect by just burning it. He feel's that
    the faster burn is most likely due to the presence of nascent (atomic)
    hydrogen and nascent oxygen, which initiate a chain reaction. I now
    completely agree. Electrolysis produces "nascent" hydrogen, and oxygen,
    which may or may not reach the engine as nascent. It is more probable that
    high temperature in the combustion chamber breaks down the oxygen and
    hydrogen molecules into free radicals (i.e. nascent). The chain reaction
    initiated by those free radicals will cause a simultaneous ignition of all
    the primary fuel. As it all ignites at once, no flame front can exist and
    without it there is no pressure wave to create knock.
    The results of tests at Corrections Canada's, Bowden Alberta Institution and
    other independent tests reinforce the belief that combustion is
    significantly accelerated. They found with the HGS on, unburned
    hydrocarbons, CO and NO, in the exhaust were either eliminated or
    drastically reduced and at the same R.P.M. the engine produced more torque
    from less fuel.
    Recently I took part in the highway test of a vehicle driven twice over the
    same 200-kilometre course, on cruise control, at the same speed, once with
    the system off and once with it on. A temperature sensor from an accurate
    pyrometer kit had been inserted directly into the exhaust manifold, to
    eliminate thermal distortion from the catalytic converter. On average, the
    exhaust manifold temperature was 65°F lower during the second trip when the
    Hydrogen Generating System was switched on. The fuel consumption with the
    unit off was 5.13253 km/li. and 7.2481 km/li. with it on, giving a mileage
    increase of 41.2% and a fuel savings attributable to the unit of 29.18%
    From the forgoing, the near absence of carbon monoxide and unburnt
    hydrocarbons confirms a very complete and much faster burn. Cooler exhaust
    temperatures show that more work is taken out during the power stroke. More
    torque from less fuel at the same R.P.M. verifies that higher pressure from
    a faster burn, acting through a longer effective power stroke, produces more
    torque and thus more work from less fuel. The considerable reduction in
    nitrous oxides (NOx} was a surprise. I had assumed that the extreme
    temperatures from such a rapid intense burn would produce more NO.,. Time
    plus high temperature are both essential for nitrous oxides to form. As the
    extreme burn temperatures are of such short duration and temperature through
    the remainder of the power stroke and the entire exhaust stroke, will, on
    average, be much cooler. With this in mind, it is not so surprising that
    less NOx is produced when the HGS is operating.
    Assume a fuel-air mix is so lean as to normally take the entire power stroke
    (180°) to complete combustion. Educated estimates suggest the presence of
    nascent hydrogen and oxygen decreases the burn time of the entire mix by a
    factor of ten (10). If a spark advance of 4* is assumed, the burn would be
    complete at about 14° past top dead centre. Such a burn will be both rapid
    and intense. The piston would have moved less than 2% of its stroke by the
    end of the burn, allowing over 98% of its travel to extract work. The lower
    exhaust manifold temperatures observed when the Hydrogen Generating System
    was in use can be viewed as evidence for this occurrence.
    Power consumed by this model of the electrolysis cell is about 100 watts. If
    an alternator efficiency of 60% is assumed, then 0.2233 horsepower will
    produce enough wattage. Even on a compact car, a unit would use less than
    1/4 % of its engine's output, or about what is used by the headlights. The
    energy regained from burning the hydrogen in the engine is so small that
    virtually all of the power to the electrolyser must be considered lost. That
    loss should not, however, exceed V4%, so that any increase in the engine's
    thermal efficiency more than 1/4 %, is a real gain.
    An engineering classmate suggested a grass fire as a useful analogy to
    understand combustion within an engine. The flame front of a grass fire is
    distinct and its speed depends in part on the closeness of the individual
    blades. If grass is first sprayed with a small amount of gasoline to
    initiate combustion, then all blades will ignite almost in unison. In much
    the same way, small amounts of nascent oxygen and hydrogen present in the
    fuel-air mix will cause a chain reaction that ignites all the primary fuel
    molecules simultaneously. Faster more complete burns are the keys to
    improving efficiency in internal combustion engines. Power gained from
    increased thermal efficiency, less the power to the electrolysis unit, is
    the measure of real gain or loss. It follows from the foregoing paragraph
    that even a modest gain in thermal efficiency will be greater than the power
    used by an electrolysis unit. The net result should therefore be positive.
    Thus onboard electrolysis systems supplying hydrogen and oxygen to internal
    combustion engines, fuelled by diesel, gasoline or propane, should
    substantially increase efficiencies.
    While the auto industry searches for the perfect means of eliminating
    harmful emissions, consideration should be given to what these systems can
    do now, since the HGS considers reduction of harmful emissions even as the
    engine ages. Almost all unburned hydrocarbons, CO and NO,, are eliminated.
    Reducing hydrocarbons and CO causes a slight rise in the percentage of CO2
    in the exhaust, but as less fuel is used, the actual quantity of CO2
    produced is reduced by roughly the same ratio as the savings in fuel. In
    brief, noxious gas is almost eliminated and greenhouse gas is decreased in
    proportion to the reduction in fuel consumption. Nothing I have learned so
    far has lessened my belief that the benefits of using electrolysis units to
    supply hydrogen to most types of internal combustion engines are both real
    and considerable.
    Reprinted with the permission of George Vosper, P. Eng.
    June 1998

    Roy E. McAlister, P.E.
    President of American Hydrogen Association
    INTRODUCTION
    The carbon equivalent of 180 million barrels of oil are burned each day to
    support the Earth's growing population of 5 billion persons search for
    prosperity. Carbon dioxide built up in the atmosphere has reached levels
    that are about 30 per cent higher than at any time in the last 160 years.
    Environmental damage and health threats due to air pollution have reached
    every area of the planet. Continued dependence upon fossil fuels is
    detrimental to public health and is a dangerous experiment that may have no
    point of return for civilization, as we know it. Nine Americans die each
    hour due to air pollution.
    U.S. Energy expenditures amount to about 440 billion dollars per year. About
    50 percent of our energy is produced from foreign oil. U.S. military
    presence throughout the planet's oil-rich areas to secure the oil-supply
    lines costs hundreds of billions of dollars each year. These great expenses
    curb investment in capital goods and our economy suffers.
    Finding a solution to the difficult problems of energy sufficiency,
    environmental damage, and air pollution is imperative. The solution must
    provide convenience for near-term market acceptance and utilize renewable
    resources.

    HYDROGEN AS A COMBUSTION STIMULANT
    Hydrogen burns more rapidly than hydrocarbon fuels because it is smaller and
    enters combustion reactions at higher velocity, has lower activation energy,
    and incurs more molecular collisions than heavier molecules. These
    characteristics make it possible to use mixtures of hydrogen with
    conventional hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel and propane to
    reduce emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. Transition from fossil fuels to
    renewable hydrogen by use of mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities with
    conventional fuels offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions. Using
    hydrogen as a combustion stimulant makes it possible for other fuels to meet
    future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an
    increasing number of additional States.
    Mixing hydrogen with hydrocarbon fuels provides combustion stimulation by
    increasing the rate of molecular-cracking processes in which large
    hydrocarbons are broken into smaller fragments. Expediting production of
    smaller molecular fragments is beneficial in increasing the
    surface-to-volume ratio and consequent exposure to oxygen for completion of
    the combustion process. Relatively small amount of hydrogen can dramatically
    increase horsepower and reduce emissions of atmospheric pollutants.
    Reprinted from an AHA Newsletter
    More information is available at
    http://www.greencarcongress.com/2005/11/hydrogenenhance.html#comment-1109331
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Dec 18, 2015

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