hydrogen injection(warning very long post)

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psuggmog

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Hey all you energy freaks ~ here is a detailed compilation I just received from a friend, of the studies that have been done on augmenting gasoline & diesel oil with
hydrogen and oxygen ("Brown's gas") from electrolysis to great benefit. I
begin with the conclusion because it is also a good "executive summary".

HYDROGEN AS A COMBUSTION STIMULANT
Hydrogen burns more rapidly than hydrocarbon fuels because it is smaller and
enters combustion reactions at higher velocity, has lower activation energy,
and incurs more molecular collisions than heavier molecules. These
characteristics make it possible to use mixtures of hydrogen with
conventional hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel and propane to
reduce emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. Transition from fossil fuels to
renewable hydrogen by use of mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities with
conventional fuels offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions. Using
hydrogen as a combustion stimulant makes it possible for other fuels to meet
future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an
increasing number of additional States.
Mixing hydrogen with hydrocarbon fuels provides combustion stimulation by
increasing the rate of molecular-cracking processes in which large
hydrocarbons are broken into smaller fragments. Expediting production of
smaller molecular fragments is beneficial in increasing the
surface-to-volume ratio and consequent exposure to oxygen for completion of
the combustion process. Relatively small amount of hydrogen can dramatically
increase horsepower and reduce emissions of atmospheric pollutants.
I add here my own observations, which I have only heard mentioned once (from
a highly respected expert on combustion) in all of my readings on
combustion. Air is composed almost entirely of N2 and O2 molecules, which
are balanced molecules transparent to radiation and transfer heat through
the relatively slow process of conduction - molecular bombardment. CO2 and
H2O, on the other hand, are imbalanced molecules that readily absorb
radiation instantly. Adding dissociated H2O to the combustion mix not only
speeds up combustion, but dramatically and instantaneously spreads the heat
of combustion to all of the molecules of gas in the cylinder, including the
Nitrogen which is the 79% of the air that doesn't burn or support
combustion. This results in near instantaneous and maximum expansion of the
gasses in the cylinder, also evening out the their temperature to eliminate
hot spots.
Hydrogen Injection
The technology of using hydrogen as a combustion enhancement in internal
combustion engines has been researched and proven for many years. The
benefits are factual and well documented. Our own utilization of this
technology. i.e. the hydrogen injection system, has also been tested and
proven both by institutions and in hundreds of practical applications in
road vehicles.
Here is a synopsis of a sampling of the research that has been done:
In 1974 John Houseman and D.J/Cerini of the Jet Propulsion Lab, California
Institute of Technology produced a report for the Society of Automotive
Engineers entitled "On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen
Injection Internal Combustion Engine".
In 1974 F.W. Hoehn and M.W. Dowy of the Jet Propulsion Lab, prepared a
report for the 9th Inter society Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,
entitled "Feasibility Demonstration of a Road Vehicle Fueled with Hydrogen
Enriched Gasoline."
In the early eighties George Vosper P. Eng., ex-professor of Dynamics and
Canadian inventor, designed and patented a device to transform internal
combustion engines to run on hydrogen. He later affirms: "A small amount of
hydrogen added to the air intake of a gasoline engine would enhance the
flame velocity and thus permit the engine to operate with leaner air to
gasoline mixture than otherwise possible. The result, far less pollution
with more power and better mileage." In 1995, Wagner, Jamal and Wyszynski,
at the Birmingham, of University Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing>,
demonstrated the advantages of "Fractional addition of hydrogen to internal
combustion engines by exhaust gas fuel reforming." The process yielded
benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and
hydrocarbon emissions.

Roy MacAlister, PE of the American Hydrogen Association states the "Use of
mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities and conventional fuels offers
significant reductions in exhaust emissions" and that "Using hydrogen as a
combustion stimulant it is possible for other fuels to meet future
requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an increasing
number of additional states. Relatively small amounts of hydrogen can
dramatically increase horsepower and reduce exhaust emissions."
At the HYPOTHESIS Conference, University of Cassino, Italy, June 26-29,
1995, a group of scientists from the University of Birmingham, UK, presented
a study about hydrogen as a fraction of the fuel. In the abstract of that
study it stated: "Hydrogen, when used as a fractional additive at extreme
lean engine operation, yields benefits in improved combustion stability and
reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions."

In the Spring of 1997, at an international conference held by the University
of Calgary, a team of scientists representing the Department of Energy
Engineering, Zhejiang University, China, presented a mathematical model for
the process of formation and restraint of toxic emissions in
hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines. Using the theory of chemical
dynamics of combustion, the group elaborated an explanation of the mechanism
of forming toxic emissions in spark ignition engines. The results of their
experimental investigation conclude that because of the characteristics of
hydrogen, the mixture can rapidly burn in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled
engines, thus toxic emissions are restrained. These studies and other
research on hydrogen as a fuel supplement generated big efforts in trying to
develop practical systems to enhance internal combustion engine performance.
A few of them materialized in patented devices that didn't't reach the level
of performance, safety or feasibility that would allow them to reach
marketing stages.
California Environmental Engineering (CEE) has tested this technology and
found reduction on all exhaust emissions. They subsequently stated: "CEE
feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable
source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines."

The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab tested this technology and proved
that: "Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions
was realized." Again, zero emissions were observed on CO. Northern Alberta
Institute of Technology. Vehicle subjected to dynamometer loading in
controlled conditions showed drastic reduction of emissions and improved
horsepower.
Corrections Canada tested several systems and concluded, "The hydrogen
system is a valuable tool in helping Corrections Canada meet the overall
Green Plan by: reducing vehicle emissions down to an acceptable level and
meeting the stringent emissions standard set out by California and British
Columbia; reducing the amount of fuel consumed by increased mileage."
Additionally, their analysis pointed out that this solution is the most cost
effective. For their research they granted the C.S.C. Environmental Award.
We also conducted extensive testing in order to prove reliability and
determine safety and performance of the components and the entire system. As
a result of these tests, we achieved important breakthroughs as far as the
designs of the components were concerned. We have since increased the
hydrogen/oxygen production significantly. This has resulted in increased
effectiveness on engine performance.
The results of these tests were able to confirm the claims made about this
technology: the emissions will be reduced, the horsepower will increase and
the fuel consumption will be reduced.
From researching the Internet we also found the following information
To best describe how Hydrogen Enhanced Combustion works, we are providing
this excerpt from a University Technical Report, written by Mr. George
Vosper, P.Eng.;
....a Hydrogen Generating System (HGS) for trucks or cars has been on the
market for some time. Mounted on a vehicle, it feeds small amounts of
hydrogen and oxygen into the engine's air intake. Its makers claim savings
in fuel, reduced noxious and greenhouse gases and increased power. The auto
industry is not devoid of hoaxes and as engineers are sceptics by training,
it is no surprise that a few of them say the idea won't work. Such opinions,
from engineers can't be dismissed without explaining why I think these
Hydrogen Generating Systems do work and are not just another hoax. The 2nd
law of thermodynamics is a likely source of those doubts. Meaning ...the
law -would lead you to believe that it will certainly take more power to
produce this hydrogen than can be regained by burning it in the engine. i.e.
the resulting energy balance should be negative. If the aim is to create
hydrogen by electrolysis to be burned as a fuel, the concept is ridiculous.
On the other hand, if hydrogen, shortens the burn time of the main fuel-air
mix, putting more pressure on the piston through a longer effective power
stroke, and in doing so takes more work out, then this system does make
sense.
Does it work? Independent studies, at different universities, using various
fuels, have shown that flame speeds increase when small amounts of hydrogen
are added to air-fuel mixes. A study by the California Institute of
Technology, at its Jet Propulsion Lab Pasadena, in 1974 concluded:
The J.P.L. concept has unquestionably demonstrated that the addition of
small quantities of gaseous hydrogen to the primary gasoline significantly
reduces CO and NOx exhaust emissions while improving engine thermal
efficiency
A recent study at the University of Calgary by G.A. Karim on the effect of
adding hydrogen to a methane-fuelled engine says
... The addition of some hydrogen to the methane, speeds up the rates of
initiation and subsequent propagation of flames over the whole combustible
mixture range, including for very fast flowing mixtures. This enhancement of
flame initiation and subsequent flame propagation, reduces the Ignition
delay and combustion period in both spark ignition and compression ignition
engines which should lead to noticeable improvements in the combustion
process and performance
What happens inside the combustion chamber is still only a guess. In an
earlier explanation I suggested that the extremely rapid flame speed of the
added hydrogen oxygen interspersed through the main fuel air mix, gives the
whole mix a much faster flame rate. Dr. Brant Peppley, Hydrogen Systems
Group, Royal Military College, Kingston, has convinced me that insufficient
hydrogen is produced to have much effect by just burning it. He feel's that
the faster burn is most likely due to the presence of nascent (atomic)
hydrogen and nascent oxygen, which initiate a chain reaction. I now
completely agree. Electrolysis produces "nascent" hydrogen, and oxygen,
which may or may not reach the engine as nascent. It is more probable that
high temperature in the combustion chamber breaks down the oxygen and
hydrogen molecules into free radicals (i.e. nascent). The chain reaction
initiated by those free radicals will cause a simultaneous ignition of all
the primary fuel. As it all ignites at once, no flame front can exist and
without it there is no pressure wave to create knock.
The results of tests at Corrections Canada's, Bowden Alberta Institution and
other independent tests reinforce the belief that combustion is
significantly accelerated. They found with the HGS on, unburned
hydrocarbons, CO and NO, in the exhaust were either eliminated or
drastically reduced and at the same R.P.M. the engine produced more torque
from less fuel.
Recently I took part in the highway test of a vehicle driven twice over the
same 200-kilometre course, on cruise control, at the same speed, once with
the system off and once with it on. A temperature sensor from an accurate
pyrometer kit had been inserted directly into the exhaust manifold, to
eliminate thermal distortion from the catalytic converter. On average, the
exhaust manifold temperature was 65°F lower during the second trip when the
Hydrogen Generating System was switched on. The fuel consumption with the
unit off was 5.13253 km/li. and 7.2481 km/li. with it on, giving a mileage
increase of 41.2% and a fuel savings attributable to the unit of 29.18%
From the forgoing, the near absence of carbon monoxide and unburnt
hydrocarbons confirms a very complete and much faster burn. Cooler exhaust
temperatures show that more work is taken out during the power stroke. More
torque from less fuel at the same R.P.M. verifies that higher pressure from
a faster burn, acting through a longer effective power stroke, produces more
torque and thus more work from less fuel. The considerable reduction in
nitrous oxides (NOx} was a surprise. I had assumed that the extreme
temperatures from such a rapid intense burn would produce more NO.,. Time
plus high temperature are both essential for nitrous oxides to form. As the
extreme burn temperatures are of such short duration and temperature through
the remainder of the power stroke and the entire exhaust stroke, will, on
average, be much cooler. With this in mind, it is not so surprising that
less NOx is produced when the HGS is operating.
Assume a fuel-air mix is so lean as to normally take the entire power stroke
(180°) to complete combustion. Educated estimates suggest the presence of
nascent hydrogen and oxygen decreases the burn time of the entire mix by a
factor of ten (10). If a spark advance of 4* is assumed, the burn would be
complete at about 14° past top dead centre. Such a burn will be both rapid
and intense. The piston would have moved less than 2% of its stroke by the
end of the burn, allowing over 98% of its travel to extract work. The lower
exhaust manifold temperatures observed when the Hydrogen Generating System
was in use can be viewed as evidence for this occurrence.
Power consumed by this model of the electrolysis cell is about 100 watts. If
an alternator efficiency of 60% is assumed, then 0.2233 horsepower will
produce enough wattage. Even on a compact car, a unit would use less than
1/4 % of its engine's output, or about what is used by the headlights. The
energy regained from burning the hydrogen in the engine is so small that
virtually all of the power to the electrolyser must be considered lost. That
loss should not, however, exceed V4%, so that any increase in the engine's
thermal efficiency more than 1/4 %, is a real gain.
An engineering classmate suggested a grass fire as a useful analogy to
understand combustion within an engine. The flame front of a grass fire is
distinct and its speed depends in part on the closeness of the individual
blades. If grass is first sprayed with a small amount of gasoline to
initiate combustion, then all blades will ignite almost in unison. In much
the same way, small amounts of nascent oxygen and hydrogen present in the
fuel-air mix will cause a chain reaction that ignites all the primary fuel
molecules simultaneously. Faster more complete burns are the keys to
improving efficiency in internal combustion engines. Power gained from
increased thermal efficiency, less the power to the electrolysis unit, is
the measure of real gain or loss. It follows from the foregoing paragraph
that even a modest gain in thermal efficiency will be greater than the power
used by an electrolysis unit. The net result should therefore be positive.
Thus onboard electrolysis systems supplying hydrogen and oxygen to internal
combustion engines, fuelled by diesel, gasoline or propane, should
substantially increase efficiencies.
While the auto industry searches for the perfect means of eliminating
harmful emissions, consideration should be given to what these systems can
do now, since the HGS considers reduction of harmful emissions even as the
engine ages. Almost all unburned hydrocarbons, CO and NO,, are eliminated.
Reducing hydrocarbons and CO causes a slight rise in the percentage of CO2
in the exhaust, but as less fuel is used, the actual quantity of CO2
produced is reduced by roughly the same ratio as the savings in fuel. In
brief, noxious gas is almost eliminated and greenhouse gas is decreased in
proportion to the reduction in fuel consumption. Nothing I have learned so
far has lessened my belief that the benefits of using electrolysis units to
supply hydrogen to most types of internal combustion engines are both real
and considerable.
Reprinted with the permission of George Vosper, P. Eng.
June 1998

Roy E. McAlister, P.E.
President of American Hydrogen Association
INTRODUCTION
The carbon equivalent of 180 million barrels of oil are burned each day to
support the Earth's growing population of 5 billion persons search for
prosperity. Carbon dioxide built up in the atmosphere has reached levels
that are about 30 per cent higher than at any time in the last 160 years.
Environmental damage and health threats due to air pollution have reached
every area of the planet. Continued dependence upon fossil fuels is
detrimental to public health and is a dangerous experiment that may have no
point of return for civilization, as we know it. Nine Americans die each
hour due to air pollution.
U.S. Energy expenditures amount to about 440 billion dollars per year. About
50 percent of our energy is produced from foreign oil. U.S. military
presence throughout the planet's oil-rich areas to secure the oil-supply
lines costs hundreds of billions of dollars each year. These great expenses
curb investment in capital goods and our economy suffers.
Finding a solution to the difficult problems of energy sufficiency,
environmental damage, and air pollution is imperative. The solution must
provide convenience for near-term market acceptance and utilize renewable
resources.

HYDROGEN AS A COMBUSTION STIMULANT
Hydrogen burns more rapidly than hydrocarbon fuels because it is smaller and
enters combustion reactions at higher velocity, has lower activation energy,
and incurs more molecular collisions than heavier molecules. These
characteristics make it possible to use mixtures of hydrogen with
conventional hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel and propane to
reduce emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. Transition from fossil fuels to
renewable hydrogen by use of mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities with
conventional fuels offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions. Using
hydrogen as a combustion stimulant makes it possible for other fuels to meet
future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an
increasing number of additional States.
Mixing hydrogen with hydrocarbon fuels provides combustion stimulation by
increasing the rate of molecular-cracking processes in which large
hydrocarbons are broken into smaller fragments. Expediting production of
smaller molecular fragments is beneficial in increasing the
surface-to-volume ratio and consequent exposure to oxygen for completion of
the combustion process. Relatively small amount of hydrogen can dramatically
increase horsepower and reduce emissions of atmospheric pollutants.
Reprinted from an AHA Newsletter
More information is available at
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2005/11/hydrogenenhance.html#comment-1109331
 
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